The Most Annoying Sound

That sound of water drops falling in the sink when there’s water or any utensil, at night this really makes me annoyed and I guess many of you find this quite annoying when breaking the silence of the dark and cold night water drops keep fluttering in your sink or washroom.

What actually causes the sound??

It’s an trapped air bubble that forms on impact on water , this air bubble oscilates around 5000 times in a second vibrates the water , which make this annoying sound.

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Looking At The Sun Makes Me To Sneeze

Whenever I look at the Sun, it makes me to sneeze twice. Do you sneeze whenever you look at the sun?? If yes then CONGRATULATIONS BUDDY !!!we are among the 18 to 35% of peoples who has this syndrome.

This is called “Photic Sneeze Reflex” also Autosomal Compelling Helio-Ophtalmic Outbrust, simply ACHOO.

Greek philosopher Aristotle in 325BCE mentioned this in THE BOOK OF PROBLEMS. “Why does the heat of the Sun provoke sneezing??”. He hypothesized that Sun’s heat cause sweating inside the nose which trigger sneezing in order to remove the moisture. Later, in 17th century , English philosopher Franchis Bacon proved Aristotle was wrong, by facing the sun with closed eyes.

Henry Everett , who first coined the term “Photic sneez reflex ” in 1964 , proposed that the syndrome is linked with human nervous system and is caused by the confusion of nerve singles. In simple words whenever such peoples look at the Sun ,their nervous system sends a wrong signal to their brain that causes the sneezing.

This syndrome is genetic and occurs within families, if one of the parents has this syndrome then there is 50% chances that their children are likely to have this syndrome.

A study in 2010 demonstrated a correlation between photic sneezing and Chromosome 2.

Now, next time you sneeze looking at the Sun, you know whom to blame.

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What Causes The Aroma Of Rain

Hi folks!

The aroma of the soil that spreads around when the drops of first rain after a long dry period pour on the soil. I just love it.

But what causes that distinctive smell which I guess most of us likes??

This aroma is known as “Petrichor” and is contributed by number of factors, these include the oil secreted by the plants during the dry season, chemical compounds secreted by bacteria and splitting of atmospheric chemical to form ozone.

Bacteria :- Soil dwelling bacteria called Actinomycetes secrete Geosmin , which has an earthy aroma when they produce spores in the soil. Rain can disturb that compound spreading the scent.

Oil secreted by plants :- Plants secrete oil in dry period which accumulate in soil and rocks. The smaller volatile compounds created by the oxidation of fats in the oil is released by rain contributes to that lovely aroma.

Ozone : In stormy weather , electrical charge can split nitrogen and oxygen in the atmospehere into individual atoms, this can combine to form nitric oxide, this can react with other chemicals in the atmosphere and forms ozone, which can be carried down from higher altitudes by thunderstrom ,causing the pre-rain aroma.

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Chemistry Of Jeans

Looking at your nice blue pair of denim, have you ever wondered what is it made of , what is behind the the beautiful blue colour and thick fabric?


Denim” is a traditional way of weaving cotton into a thick , sturdy material. Cotton is mostly cellulose , a strong polymer of beta D glucose monomer. Thousands of monomers are present in each polymer chain. Polar hydroxl groups forms hydrogen bonds with hydroxyl groups on adjacent chains to form a strong microfibrilis , which the cotton plant then meshes into a strong poly -saccharide matrix. The matrix and the denim weave give high strength and durability to your jeans.

Stroy behind the beautiful blue color :-

Indican , a colourless water soluble compound , is extracted from the plant of Indigofera genus. At high alkalinity it hydrolyses giving the Indoxyl group. Vigorous whisking adds air to indoxyl solution ,this oxidises and turn the indoxyl into Indigotin ,the final blue dye. Indigotin is then reduced to leuco – indigotin (indigowhite) to make it water soluble. Jeans is then soaked in this soluble dye that attached very well to cotton. When removed the leuco -Indigotin sticks to the jeans and oxidises to indigotin again. Indigotin is water insoluble so its sticks to the cotton and can keep their color.

The first blue jeans was produced by Levi Strauss co in 1873 before the invention of the synthetic Indigotin which was invented by Baeyer and Drewsen in 1882 , 9 years after the first blue jeans.

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Rocks Soil and Your Health

Men and the Universe are not separate, the elements which made up the whole universe are also present in the human body.

For growth and function human and animals need nutrients, some of these are biosynthesised but some needs to be obtained from external sources. Among these some are “essential ” as these need to be taken from the air, water and food. These includes fatty acids , vitamins and some chemical elements , such as calcium, magnesium , zinc, chromium etc. These elements are obtained by the body through food and water which are directly connected to soil. So the parent material which makes the soil are directly or indirectly connected to these nutrients.

Now the question is what are the parent material ?? answer is ” Rocks”.

Rocks are classified in three categories , Igneous , Metamorphic and Sedimentary. The Igneous rocks can also be considered as Primary rocks , these forms from solidified lavas , that comes from within the Earth. Lavas contain the trace and other essential elements, after the solidification these rocks are subjected to actions of rain , wind , temperature , water , collectively the impacts of these agents is called “Weathering“. Which creates the soil .

Calcium , Sodium, Magnesium , Iron , Selenium , Iodine and many more , have great impact on human health. The presence or absence of these elements in our food and water influence our health to a great extent.

The food grows on the soil , these elements gets into that plant or grains from the soil through the roots of the plants, if any animal is eating those leafs or grass these elements go into their bodies and when human eats those animals its goes into their bodies.

Water when flows over the rocks , dissolves those elements and carries them with itself , when human and animals drink that water , these mineral elements /nutrients gets into their bodies.

Sixteen elements have been identified as very important and have major influence on human health.

Elements and implicated functions :-

Macro nutrients :

Calcium – Bone structure, nervous transduction.

Phosphorus – Membrane structure, bone structure, metabolic regulation.

Magnesium – Bone structure , enzyme catalyst.

Sodium – Acid- Base control, osmotic control of water distribution.

Potassium – same functions as Sodium.

Chlorine – same functions as Sodium.

Micro nutrients:-

Iron – Oxygen transport.

Copper – Enzyme catalysis.

Zinc – Enzyme Catalysis.

Iodine – Metabolic regulation.

Selenium – Antioxidant , Enzyme Catalysis.

Manganese – Same as Selenium.

Molybdenum – Potentiation of insulin action.

Chromium – Enzyme catalysis.

Fluoride – Protects against dental caries.

Cobalt – Single Carbon metabolism as active center of vitamin B12 molecule.

Goiter (photo : Wikipedia)

Regions , where the concentrations of such elements are low , the populations of such areas may get affected. For example Goiter, which is caused by low Iodine, establish a very important relationship between geology and health. Low Iodine may also cause reduced IQ.

Selenium is another important element, has implication as antioxidant. Selenium deficiency (due to soils low in selenium), has been
shown to cause severe physiological impairment and organ damage
such as a juvenile cardiomyopathy (Keshan disease) and muscular
abnormalities in adults (Kaschin-Beck disease).

Keshan disease (photo: Wikipedia)

In the 1960s scientists suspected that the diseases were of geological origin and in the 1970s the probable solution was found. The diseases were always
located in areas with low selenium soils. The use of selenium in prevention and treatment of thediseases was a great success.

So, we can conclude that there is an important relationship between the geology of an area and the diseases , the population can suffer from. The study of this relationship between geology and health is known as Medical geology, which is a re-emerging science. “Re-emerging”, because the relationship between geologic materialssuch as rocks and minerals and human health has been known for centuries. Ancient Chinese, Egyptian, Islamic, and Greek texts de-
scribe the many therapeutic applications of various rocks and minerals and many health problems that they may cause.

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Positive Attitude Brings Positive Results

Beliefs, they’re the foundation stones of our attitude, we knowingly or unknowingly acts as a reflection of our beliefs.

Belief is a perception about things we have made in our mind depending upon our previous experiences in life, whatever we have heard from people around us about something, based on the rewards and failures we have experienced by doing some thing. This goes a long way in shaping our attitude, in childhood we might have heard our parents talking about things or people which are bad, based on this we have made a belief about things or people, many of us got praised by our parents and teachers about our understanding of a particular subject, that made us to believe that we are good at that particular subject and boosted our interest in that area, for our grades in school some of us were praised, that made us to work harder, where as some of us never got any praise from parents or teachers, that made us to think we are not good at studies, we just have to score the pass marks and thats enough.

To succeed in life, the important thing is to have a positive attitude towards things, an optimistic way of looking at things motivate us to do something with more efficiency and more efforts even if we have failed earlier, suppose a person is failed in a test twice, an optimist will see think that even though he failed he has learnt something and in the next attempt no one can defeat him, this knowledge will not only help him in passing the examination with more better marks next time but also help him in the long run of his life, but a person with negative attitude will simply tell himself that since he has failed twice its not his cup of tea, he is not good enough. Even in relationships, after a break up, some people with positive attitude tries to know the reason behind their break up and work on that area of life, but some with negative attitude feels like they’re not good enough. One must know no one is perfect in this world, everybody possess some strength and some weakness.

Both positive and negative attitude are deeply connected to our belief, so for changing the attitude we need to change our beliefs first. To have a positive attitude towards things, first one needs to be an optimist, one has to change his beliefs, one needs to convince himself or herself that bad things does not only happens to them, only they do not fail in examination or interviews, break up are not only made for them but almost everybody at least for once have gone through heartbreak.

Be clear that you need to change your negative beliefs and replace those with positive thoughts. Adopt this new way of thinking and imagine yourself getting good results by adopting this new positive thinking, the more your behavior is cconsistent with this new thinking, the more firm your belief will be. Think positively in case of failures, see the bright side of everything you do. Whenever a negative thought appears in your mind, deliberately voice a positive thought to cancel it out.

“If ye have faith …. Nothing shall be impossible unto you” (Matthew 17:20). Have faith in your skills and capabilities, this way, first change your beliefs about yourself, as attitude is reflection of beliefs, your attitude will change along with your beliefs.

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How To Study More Effectively

Many a time we see, some people study less but score good marks,on the other hand some people can not concentrate that much, they study but it takes a long time for them to achieve the same amount of success as the previous one. What is the key to concentrate and study more effectively, those who study less and score more, do they have anything special in their brain? The answer is simply NO. All human have the same size of brain, yet some can memorize things well and concentrate far better than others.

Then, what makes the difference ????

The most important thing which is common to those high achievers is Mindfulness. The winner always do something extra that is different from others. Following are some steps to achieve mindfulness which may increase your potentiality in acadamics.

First thing first.. make a slot for study and only study. Even if something important appears, still do not change this time slot. I believe, as a student nothing can be more important to you than your study. The brain is a slave of your habit, it will react the way you train it. Many times you have also witnessed that if you start waking up at 5 am in the morning for 15 days, on the 16th morning your sleep will break at around 5 am. Set you biological clock to strike your mind at that particular slot for study, this can be anytime according to your priority, morning or evening , hardly matters. But everyday sit for study at that period.

The second thing is, STAY AWAY FROM DISTRACTION. Now a days many students, while studying they keep their phones near them, they keep listening to songs simultaneously while solving problems or doing homework, after every 20/25 minutes they look at their phones for this or that, take a break from studies and start chatting with their friends. These are very destructive things for your study. You’re not any multi-tasking machine but a human, you must do the appropriate thing at appropriate time. If your phone is your priority, if talking to your friends, browsing social media sites, chatting with girlfriend or boyfriend are your priority than get engaged in these stuffs first and when you’re free then sit for studies. Do not mix other things during the hours you’ve selected for your study. Avoid any kind of distraction during those hours, whether it is phone or television or chatting with friends, going out, avoid this.

Third, BREAK THE SLOT INTO SMALL SEGMENTS. This is called Pomodoro technique. For example if you’ve chosen 4 hours for study than studying after every 25 minutes take a break for 5 minutes, or study for 50 minutes and take a break for 10 minutes. In case you have chosen to take a break after 25 minutes, then in the 4 hour major slot, you’ll have 8 minor slots each consisted of 25 minutes, in case of 50 minutes minor slot you’ll have 4 minor slot in 4 hours. Try to study at least 6 hours each day, break it as 2 hours in the morning and 4 hours in the evening, or 6 hours in the evening, whatever suits you. Depending upon your circumstances choose the duration.

Fourth, TAKE A PEN AND PAPER, NOTE DOWN EACH TOPIC YOU STUDY WITH DATE. Revise the same topic after exactly 7 days from the day you’ve studied this topic first, repeat the same topic again after 30 days from the day you’ve studied this for the first time.

Fifth and most important, do not only read the article, but act upon these above mentioned steps.

Let me know if it makes any positive change in your acadamic career.

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Its okay to Give Up Sometimes

Recently I met a friend from college, he was stubborn and still nourish this quality. We all have started our journey out of the walls of the campus in the real world at same time. He had a dream to get a big job like all of us had. He was interested in a particular job, for which he have to clear a test, it’s a big job, and he is very ambitious.

Six long years have passed since we had left university, all of our friends, classmates, peoples whom we knew, at least by their face if not by their name, all are married, having kids, doing at least some work, good or bad it depends upon one’s perception, but this fellow is still unemployed, he stays with his parents till now. I asked him what do you do? He replied, “Im preparing for that test”. I didn’t stretch the conversation and just said “Oh, cool, good luck”. But inside me, I had a thought, isn’t he missing many things in life for an uncertain future??

Many times we are so absorbed in our desires that we forget we maybe loosing many things for attaining one thing, as in case of my friend, he is unemployed, his family is not that rich, he is in his mid 30’s. Just because of his stubborn nature isn’t he missing many happiness of life, loosing his respect in his family’s eyes? Every body has a different priority and goal, it is very good if someone keeps trying to attain their goals, but is there any limit of trying? They say failures are the pillars of success but if someone keeps failing always then they may end up with pillars only and no roof.

There must be a limit of failing and trying, one should learn to accept that some things are not for him or her, they should learn to give up to walk along with the time, for a goal if someone is trying for a decade and even if at the end he gets it, will it be of the same value to him, the value it could hold ten years back. Time waits for none, the hands of clock doesn’t rest, it goes on, if someone is not walking at the same speed with time, it is very likey that they’ll suffer.

But it doesn’t mean one should stop trying to achieve what they dream for, one should never stop trying, but they should make a dead line, they must tell themselve,by which if they do not succeed then they will give up and try something they’re really good at and after securing this they’ll simultaneously try to achieve their desire.

Hitting the door very hard sometimes make the door rebound and get closed, smooth and consistent approach makes the door unlocked..

Three Important Steps To Success.

A ship , without knowing where it is bound to go will just wander in the vast ocean, a man who knows what he wants to do, who knows where he wants to see himself in the future is more successful than those who has no idea of what they want.

Finding a purpose : The most important thing in life is to find the purpose before doing something, purpose refers to people’s identification of highly valued over arching goals, the attainment of which brings a deep sense of fulfilment. It is a bridge between present and future accomplishment. It has been observed during research that people having a definite purpose have shows more potential than those having no such purpose in life, peoples having a specific purpose are more happy and successful, suffers less pychological troubles.

Goals : Goal setting is another important thing to attain desirable success, goal setting is the underlaying explaination for most of the motivation theories, based on hundreds of studies it has been found that persons having specific, difficult and attainable goals performs very well in their career or in every walk of life, than the persons having no goals in life, goals can be small and big, small goals like paying the electricity bill by the dead line, cleaning your room on weekends and bigger goals like passing in a competative examination, get into a better shape by the end of the year, getting a job in a desirable company or getting promoted to the next higher post. Smaller goals do not matter much, as they leave less impression in our life, and are very small achievements, on the other hand bigger goals needs consistancy, it needs every day practice. The accumulation of the day to day practice yield the desire result. But most importantly one need to set the goal before trying to achieve it.

Don’t just dream, start working on it : The third and most important thing is to work to achieve the previous two things, i.e., the purpose and goal, many peoples become the victim of procrastination, they either do not feel to do what is needed to do, or they give priority to things which adds no values to their life, in this case one needs to understand their priority first. Another thing some people does is, they keep thinking about perfection, they think they need lil more extra time to make their work perfect, by doing this they only keep thinking and never start, and by the time they start, it is already late, some people keeps dreaming about needless things, like how they’ll dress up on the day of their presentation in office, what will they wear in their interview, by doing this they kill their time being in an illusion related to the never happening future. One should understand that by killing time and day dreaming, things will not turn in their favor, to achieve their goals and purpose in life they need to act on those.

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Be In The Present

The past has shaped what we are today and the future is shaping our continuously, we are in a continuous evolutionary process, which is depending on our future goal. But, only the present is real. The past was our present and the future will be our present. Hence, the past is the only truth.

We can not move a leaf from one place to another neighter in the past nor in the future, what we have is the present. But in the present we are not happy, the root causes of our unhappiness lies in the past and the fear or uncertainty of the future. The emitional pains caused by the unconscious world when we were kids, the rejection of love when in adolescent, the failures of our youth has moulded our present lives, and the negativeness of such things that have happened to us are still alive in our unconscious relam. These are making us more cautious about the future uncertainities, these past event have created fear in us, now whenever we start something new, whether a relationship or a project or simply a job, we are scared. The fear has nothing to do with the present, but its about the past and future. Because of our past bitter experience in relationships, now we are more cautious in loving, we find it difficult to trust our partner, we feel no interest, all because we are afraid, and to some extent the past pain has made us emotionally strong. But we forget that the person we are with is completely different from the one we were having an affair, we find it hard to accept that the fact that things have changed, and the unacceptance of the truth leads to the appearence of difficulties in our present relationship, the same is true in case of a job or interview, in every walk of life we need to understand that all roads are not same, just because the previous road was rough and zig-zag the present will also be rough, is not true every time. Dwelling in the past and getting worried about a future which is still far away ruins the joy of present..

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